15414 articles - 12266 brèves

SPACE I 2001 Enquiry

Mise en ligne : 18 mars 2006

Texte de l'article :

Français

Strasbourg, 12 June 2002
[pc-cp\space\documents\pc-cp (2002) 1rev - e] PC-CP (2002) 1 rev.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE ON CRIME PROBLEMS
(CDPC)

Council for Penological Co-operation
(PC-CP)

SPACE I (Annual Penal Statistics of the Council Of Europe) - 2001 Enquiry

prepared by

Mr Pierre V. Tournier
Director of research at the CNRS (France)

FINAL VERSION 

Annual Penal Statistics of the Council of Europe
SPACE I : 2001 enquiry on prison populations

By Pierre Victor Tournier1

The SPACE I data published below was obtained by means of a new questionnaire devised for the 1997 survey, in its simplified version. They relate to the situation of the prison population at 1 September 2001, prison entry flows, lengths of imprisonment, and incidents in 2000 (escapes, prisoners absconding, deaths and suicides).
.

I. PRISON POPULATIONS

I.1. State of prison populations at 1 September 2001

The situation of prison populations at a given date ("stock statistics") is set out in seven tables.

Table 1 Situation of penal institutions
a. Total number of prisoners (including pre-trial detainees)
b. Prison population rate (per 100,000 inhabitants) : number of prisoners (including pre-trial detainees) present at 1 September 2001 in proportion to the number of inhabitants at the same date
c. Total prison capacity
d. Rate of occupancy (per 100 places) : number of prisoners (including pre-trial detainees) in relation to the number of places available

Table 2. Age structure

a. Median age of prison population (including pre-trial detainees) at the date of the statistics
b. Prisoners under 18 years of age (including pre-trial detainees) : number and percentage
c. Prisoners between 18 and 21 years of age (including pre-trial detainees) : number and percentage
d. Prisoners under 21 years of age (including pre-trial detainees) : number and percentage

Data not collected in this enquiry (simplified version).

Table 3. Women and foreigners

a. Female prisoners (including pre-trial detainees) : number and percentage
b. Foreign prisoners (including pre-trial detainees) : number and percentage

Data not collected in this enquiry (simplified version).

Table 4.1 Legal structure (numbers)

a. Untried prisoners (not yet convicted)
b. Prisoners convicted but not yet sentenced
c. Sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory time limit for doing so
d. Sentenced prisoners (final sentence)
e. Other cases

Table 4.2 Legal structure (rates)

We have selected four indicators as a basis for comparing the situations of the various populations :

a. Percentage of prisoners not serving a final sentence at 1 September 2001 (often inaccurately referred to as the percentage of unconvicted prisoners) : the number of prisoners whose sentence is not final, present at that date, expressed as a percentage of the total number of prisoners at the same date

b. Prisoners not serving a final sentence per 100,000 inhabitants at 1 September 2001 : the number of prisoners whose sentence is not final, present at that date, in relation to the number of inhabitants at the same date - expressed per 100,000 inhabitants

c. Proportion of untried prisoners (not yet convicted) at 1 September 2001 : the number of untried prisoners (not yet convicted), present at that date, expressed as a percentage of the total number of prisoners at the same date

d. Untried prisoners (not yet convicted) per 100,000 inhabitants : the number of untried prisoners (not yet convicted), present at that date, in relation to the number of inhabitants at the same date - expressed per 100,000 inhabitants

Only prisoners included under the heading "untried prisoners" in the questionnaire are taken into account in calculating the last two rates.

- Where the item "Sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory time-limit for doing so" is left blank in the questionnaire for lack of available data - without any further information being provided - it is assumed that prisoners in this situation are included among "sentenced prisoners (final sentence)". In this case, neither rate (a) - percentage of prisoners not serving a final sentence - nor rate (b) - prisoners not serving a final sentence per 100,000 inhabitants - can be calculated.

- Where the item "Prisoners convicted but not yet sentenced" is left blank in the questionnaire for lack of available data - without any further information being provided - it is assumed that prisoners in this situation are included among "untried prisoners (not yet convicted)". In this case, neither rate (c) - proportion of untried prisoners (not yet convicted), as a percentage - nor rate (d) - untried prisoners (not yet convicted) per 100,000 inhabitants - can be calculated.

Table 5. Convicted prisoners : breakdown by offence

Offences have been classified under seven headings : homicide, wounding with intent to harm, rape, robbery with violence, other categories of theft, drug-related offences, other cases.

Table 6. Convicted prisoners : breakdown by length of sentence

Table 7. Prisoners sentenced to less than one year : breakdown by length of sentence

I.2. Flow of entries, length of imprisonment, escapes and deaths in 2000

Table 8. Flow of entries

a. Total number of entries in 2000
b. Rate of entries (per 100,000 inhabitants) : the number of entries for 2000 in relation to the average number of inhabitants during the period under review. In view of the information available, the figure actually used was the number of inhabitants at 1 September 2000, as supplied by the authorities.
c. Entries before final sentence : number and percentage

The term "entry" refers to all entries into penal institutions, except in the following situations :

- entry following a transfer between penal institutions ;
- entry following a prisoner’s removal with a view to an appearance before a judicial authority (investigating judge, trial court, etc) ;
- entry following prison leave or a period of permitted absence ;
- entry of an escaped prisoner recaptured by the police.

The figures do not relate to the number of individuals but to the number of events (entries). The same individual may be committed to prison several times in the same year for the same case. This applies, for instance, to an individual who is placed in pre-trial detention during year n (first entry), released by the investigating judge at the pre-trial investigation stage, tried without being re-detained, convicted and sentenced to a term of imprisonment exceeding the period of pre-trial detention, and re-imprisoned during year n to serve the remainder of the sentence (second entry). A fortiori, the same individual may be committed to prison several times in the same year for different cases.

Only entries of untried prisoners (not yet convicted), prisoners convicted but not yet sentenced, or sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory time limit for doing so are recorded under (c). This figure therefore corresponds to part of the entries recorded under (a). These of course include entries for pre-trial detention.

Table 9. Indicator of average length of imprisonment

a. Total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2000
b. Average number of prisoners in 2000 : (b) = (a)/366
c. Indicator of average length of imprisonment (D) : quotient of the average number of prisoners in 2000 (P) divided by the flow of entries during that period (E) : D = 12 x P/E - length expressed in months

Figure (a) corresponds to the total number of days spent in penal institutions by all persons placed in detention for at least one day during the reference year (2000). This may be time spent in pre-trial detention or time spent serving a prison sentence, or may even correspond to other circumstances (detention for failure to pay a fine, for instance). No distinction is made here.

Data of this type are usually prepared by the departments responsible for prison budgets. They are used by the authorities to calculate an average daily cost of imprisonment.

In our case, this indicator yields the best possible estimate of the average number of inmates in a given year, by dividing the number of days spent in penal institutions by 365 (or 366 for a leap year). The resulting figure is what demographers call the number of "prisoners/year" (b). We use this indicator to work out various other figures (for instance the suicide rate and the ratio of inmates to custodial staff).

Table 10. Escapes

This only corresponds to escapes by convicted prisoners or pre-trial detainees (in the custody of the prison authorities) from closed penal institutions or during administrative transfers (for example, to or from a court, another penal institution, or a hospital). In the event of a group breakout, the number of escapes is equal to the number of inmates involved.

a. Number of escapes in 2000
b. Number of prisoners/year in 2000 (see table 9)
c. Escape rate per 10,000 prisoners : 10,000 x (a)/(b)

Table 11. Other forms of escape (absconding or running off)

Examples are escapes from open institutions (such as work farms) or from semi-detention, and escapes during authorised short-term absence (or leave) from all kinds of institutions (including closed institutions).

a. Number of escapes in 2000
b. Number of prisoners/year in 2000 (see table 9)
c. Escape rate per 10,000 prisoners : 10,000 x (a)/(b)

We have not worked out the rate here, as that would amount to calculating the ratio of escapes (other forms) to the average number of prisoners, without taking account of the proportion of inmates in "open institutions".

Table 12. Deaths in penal institutions

a. Number of deaths in penal institutions in 2000
b. Number of prisoners/year in 2000 (see table 9)
c. Mortality rate per 10,000 prisoners : 10,000 x (a)/(b)

Deaths of convicted prisoners and pre-trial detainees while in hospital are included.

Table 13. Suicides in penal institutions

a. Number of suicides in 2000
b. Number of prisoners/year in 2000 (see table 9)
c. Suicide rate per 10,000 prisoners : 10,000 x a/b

Deaths of convicted prisoners and pre-trial detainees while in hospital are included.

Table 14. Deaths in penal institutions - other than suicides

a. Number of deaths in penal institutions, other than suicides, in 2000
b. Number of prisoners/year in 2000 (see table 9)
c. Non-suicide mortality rate per 10,000 prisoners : 10,000 x a/b

Deaths of convicted prisoners and pre-trial detainees while in hospital are included.

II. PRISON STAFF

Data not collected in this enquiry (simplified version).

STATISTICAL TABLES

Table 

I.1 PRISON POPULATIONS
State of prison populations on 1 September 2001

Table 1. Situation of penal institutions on 1 September 2001

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.11

Notes - Table 1.

Detention rates are calculated on the basis of demographic data at 1 January 2001 (Source : “Recent demographic evolution in Europe 2001” Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg).

The data for England and Wales and Northern Ireland were provided by the Office for National Statistics, Population Estimates Unit (United Kingdom).

Croatia : Situation on 31 December 2000.

Germany : Situation on 30 November 2000

Italy : the data exclude the population of penal institutions for juveniles. The administration in charge of these institutions distinguishes three unspecified categories : the “IPM” (477 juveniles), the “Ministerial communities” (59 juveniles), other communities (257 juveniles). The data corresponding to these institutions are appended.

Moldova : Situation on 1 October 2001.

Netherlands : The data on the number of prisoners and prison capacity include the figures for TBS clinics (1122) and institutions caring for juvenile delinquents (1860). The following tables do not include these two categories and so relate to a total of 12,264 prisoners.

Portugal : provisional figures.

Russian Federation : Situation on 1 February 2002.

Sweden : The number of prisoners indicated reflects the number registered on 1 October 2001. The figure comprises persons who serve their sentence outside the prison in institutions for the treatment of drug-addiction, hospitalised persons and escaped prisoners.

Tableau 1.2 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 by increasing detention rates

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.12

Table 2. Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : age structure

Data not collected in this enquiry.

Table 3. Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : female prisoners and foreign prisoners

Data not collected in his enquiry.

Table 4.1 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (numbers)

(a)Untried prisoners (i.e. no court decision yet reached)
(b) Convicted prisoners, but not yet sentenced
(c) Sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory limit to do so
(d) Sentenced prisoners (final sentence)
(e) Other cases

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.41

Notes - Table 4.1

Austria : (e) = mentally ill prisoners who cannot be subject to a penal sanction ; persons detained for failing to pay administrative fines.

Belgium : (e) = inmates of mental hospitals - social protection law -, foreigners - administrative measure -, vagrants, persons under 18 in custody, recidivists or habitual offenders detained at the discretion of the government.

Croatia : (e) = administrative sanctions (116), correctional mesures (74).

Czech Republic : (e) = persons detained pending extradition or expulsion.

Denmark : (e) = persons detained under immigration law.

France : (e) = civil imprisonment.

Germany : (e) = persons detained and awaiting extradition (3 598) and detention on remand (254).

Hungary : (e) = 178 persons detained for psychiatric treatment, 105 persons detained for failing to pay fines.

Netherlands : (e) “detention” = 305, persons detained under immigration law = 997, persons awaiting admission to a TBS-clinic = 236, persons of unknown status = 224, admission = 90.

Norway : (e) = persons detained for failing to pay fines.

Portugal : 189 persons with psychiatric problems detained by measure of safety.

Romania : “other cases” = sactions for administrative or summary offences.

Slovenia : “other cases” : the prison authorities are also responsible for persons sentenced for minor offences in juvenile courts and serving their sentences in education centres or correctional homes. The young people detained in these institutions are between 16 and 21 years of age, although some may be as old as 23. These sentences are not final - which is why this figure is not included in the figure for convicted prisoners whose sentences are final.

Sweden : “other cases” relates to certain prisoners who are drug addicts, juveniles kept in special detention, illegal immigrants awaiting deportation, persons awaiting placement in psychiatric institutions, and persons who have broken conditions of probation.

Switzerland : (a) = remand prisoners, prisoners who start to serve a sentence pending appeal in spite of its suspensive effect ; prisoners detained pending expusion.

United Kingdom
Northern Ireland : (e) = civil prisoners (10), persons detained for failing to pay fines (15).

Table 4.2.1 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (rates)

(a) Percentage of prisoners without final sentence
(b) Rate of prisoners without final sentence per 100 000 inhabitants
(c) Percentage of untried prisoners (i.e. no court decision yet reached)
(d) Rate of untried prisoners (i.e. no court decision yet reached) per 100 000 inhabitants

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.421

REMINDER

- Where the item "Sentenced prisoners who have appealed or who are within the statutory time-limit for doing so" is left blank in the questionnaire for lack of available data - without any further information being provided - it is assumed that prisoners in this situation are included among "sentenced prisoners (final sentence)". In this case, neither rate (a) - percentage of prisoners not serving a final sentence - nor rate (b) - prisoners not serving a final sentence per 100,000 inhabitants - can be calculated.

This applies to Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, England and Wales, Northern Ireland.

- Where the item "Prisoners convicted but not yet sentenced" is left blank in the questionnaire for lack of available data - without any further information being provided - it is assumed that prisoners in this situation are included among "untried prisoners (not yet convicted)". In this case, neither rate (c) - proportion of untried prisoners (not yet convicted), as a percentage - nor rate (d) - untried prisoners (not yet convicted) per 100,000 inhabitants - can be calculated.

This applies to : Albania, Armenia, Croatia, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Northern Ireland.

Table 4.2.2 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (rates) : by increasing rates of detainees without a final sentence per 100 000 inhabitants.

(a) Percentage of prisoners without final sentence
(b) Rate of prisoners without final sentence per 100 000 inhabitants
(c) Percentage of untried prisoners (i.e. no court decision yet reached)
(d) Rate of untried prisoners (i.e. no court decision yet reached) per 100 000 inhabitants

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.422

Table 4.2.3 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (rates) : by increasing order of untried detainees per 100 000 inhabitants.

(a) Percentage of prisonsers without final sentence
(b) Rate of prisoners without final sentence per 100 000 inhabitants
(c) Percentage of untried prisoners (i.e. no court decision yet reached)
(d) Rate of untried prisoners (i.e. no court decision yet reached) per 100 000 inhabitants

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.423

Table 5.1. Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by the main offence on 1 September 2001 (numbers)

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.51

Notes - Table 5.1

Estonia : Situation on 1 January 2001 (n = 4 006).

Finland : The data refers to the situation on 1 May 2001 (total number of sentenced prisoners = 2 614).

France : “Rape” includes rape and indecent assault.

Germany : Incomplete data.

Ireland : Incomplete data.

Poland : Situation on 31 December 2000 (n = 48 006).

Turkey : The term “rape” includes all sexual assaults.

United Kingdom
Northern Ireland : rape including attempted rape.

Table 5.2 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by the main offence on 1 September 2001 (%)

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.52

Table 6.1 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 (numbers)

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.61

Notes - Table 6.1

Belgium : The data provided do not relate to the total number of convicted prisoners. Figures by length of sentence are not available for certain prisoners serving a specified term (269), sentenced to more than five years (4) or sentenced to imprisonment solely in default of payment of a fine (5), prisoners on parole provisionally recalled to prison pending withdrawal (11), prisoners whose legal situation is provisional following transfer from abroad (3), and prisoners detained on remand pending cancellation of a probation measure (4).

Czech Republic : Situation on 31 December 2000 (n = 15 571).

Finland : The data refers to the situation on 1 May 2001 (total number of prisoners = 2,611). The difference of 3 compared with table 5.1 corresponds to three convicted prisoners who are affected by joinder of cases and whose final sentences are not yet known.

Portugal : The table does not include indefinite sentences (55, or 0.6%) or prisoners with mental problems detained by virtue of a security measure (101, or 1.1%).

Slovenia : The minimum term is fifteen days and the maximum fifteen years. A thirty-year sentence may be ordered only for the most serious crimes (first degree murder, genocide, war crimes), but this is exceptional. The Criminal Code does not provide for life sentences.

Spain : The data provided have been broken down according to different time brackets :

- Prisoners sentenced under the old Criminal Code (1973) : less than one month (49), one month to less than six months (372), six months to less than six years (3 308), six years to less than twelve years (1 867), twelve years to less than twenty years (1 244), twenty to thirty years (880).

- Prisoners sentenced under the new Criminal Code (1995) : six months to less than three years (10 722), three years to less than eight years (11 477), eight years to less than fifteen years (4 757), ), fifteen to twenty years (900), more than 20 years (287), sentence of weekend arrest (421), pecuniary punishment (44), security measures (433).

United Kingdom
England and Wales : The time brackets are “one year and less”, “more than a year to three years”, “more than three years to five years”, “more than five years to ten years”, “more than ten years”.

Table 6.2 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 (%)

Reference : Conseil de l’Europe, SPACE 2001.62

Table 6.3 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 : cumulative %

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.63

Table 7.1 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 : less than one year (numbers)

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.71

Table 7.2 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 : less than one year (%)

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.72

I.2 PRISON POPULATIONS
Flow of entries, length of imprisonment, escapes and deaths in 2000

Table 8. Flow of entries to penal institutions (2000)

Reference : Council of Europe, SPACE 2001.8

Notes - Table 8.

Subject to exceptions (see below), the rate of entries is based on the number of prisoners and the prison population rate as at 1 September 2000 (SPACE I - 2000).

Rate of entries calculated in relation to number of inhabitants as at 1 January 2001 : Andorra. Armenia. Cyprus. Malta. Moldova. Portugal. Northern Ireland.

Rate of entries based on the number of prisoners and the prison population rate as at 1 December 1999 (SPACE I - 2000) = Croatia.

Table 9. Indicator of average length of imprisonment (2000)

Reference : Council of Europe. SPACE 2001.9

Notes - Table 9.

Where the total number of days spent in penal institutions in 2000 is not available, we have estimated the average number of prisoners in 2000 on the basis of the prison population as at 1 September 2000 (SPACE I 2000).

Exceptions : Armenia (1 September 2001), Germany (30 November 2000), Latvia (1 July 2000), Malta (1 September 2001), Portugal (1 September 2001), Russia (1 February 2002), Ukraine (1 September 2001).

Table 10. Number of Escapes (by convicted prisoners or pre-trial detainees under the supervision of the prison administration) from a closed penal institution or during administrative transfer (2000)

Reference : Council of Europe. SPACE 2001.10

Notes - Table 10.

Denmark : 39 escapes from closed institutions. 36 during transfer.

Finland : 44 escapes, 9 attempts.

Germany : Data from 1998.

Slovenia : 21 escapes from closed institutions, 5 during transfer.

Table 11. Other forms of escape in 2000 (absconding or running off)

Reference : Council of Europe. SPACE 2001.11

Notes - Table 11.

Czech Republic : 10 escapes from open institutions. 7 in semi-detention. 28 escapes during leave.

Denmark : 277 escapes from open institutions. 574 escapes during leave.

Finland : 56 escapes from open institutions. 194 escapes during leave.

Germany : Data from 1998.

Portugal : 52 escapes from open institutions. 2 in semi-detention. 2 escapes during leave.

Slovenia : 14 escapes from open institutions. 74 escapes during leave.

Table 12. Deaths in penal institutions (2000)

Reference : Council of Europe. SPACE 2001.12

Notes - Table 12.

Germany : Data from 1998

Table 13. Suicides in penal institutions (2000)

Reference : Council of Europe. SPACE 2001.13

Notes - Table 13.

Germany : Data from 1998

Table 14. Deaths in penal institutions - other than suicides (2000)

Reference : Council of Europe. SPACE 2001.14

Notes - Table 14.

Germany : Data from 1998

Appendix - Italy

Data concerning establishments

LIST OF TABLES

1.1 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 
 
1.2 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 by increasing detention rates 
 
2. Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : age 
 
3. Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : female prisoners and foreign prisoners 
 
4.1 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (numbers) 
 
4.2.1 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (rates) 
 
4.2.2 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (rates) : by increasing rates of detainees without a final sentence per 100 000 inhabitants 
 
4.2.3 Population of penal institutions on 1 September 2001 : legal status (rates) : by increasing order of untried detainees per 100 000 inhabitants 
 
5.1 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by the main offence on 1 September 2001 (numbers) 
 
5.2 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by the main offence on 1 September 2001 (%) 
 
6.1. Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 (numbers) 
 
6.2. Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 (%) 
 
6.3 Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 (cumulative %) 
 
7.1. Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 : less than one year (numbers) 
 
7.2. Breakdown of sentenced prisoners (final sentence) by length of the sentence on 1 September 2001 : less than one year (%) 
 
8. Flow of entries to penal institutions (2000) 
 
9. Indicator of average length of imprisonment (2000)

10. Number of escapes (by convicted prisoners or pre-trial detainees under the supervision of the prison administration) from a closed penal institution or during administrative transfer (2000) 
 
11. Other forms of escape in 2000 (absconding or running off) 
 
12. Deaths in penal institutions (2000) 
 
13. Suicides in penal institutions (2000) 
 
14. Deaths in penal institutions - other than suicides (2000)